now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three
kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and
by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the
realm of Grecia." (Verse 2)
||See Ezra 4:5-24. The three kings were:
Artaxerxes and Darius,
known in history as Cambyses,
Smerdis, and Darius
Hystaspis (not Darius the Mede). The fourth one was
who, as history tells us, was immensely rich. The invasion of
Greece took place in 480 BC
a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and
do according to his will. " (Verse 3)
|| The successors of Xerxes are not
mentioned. The mighty king in this verse is the notable horn seen by
Daniel on the he goat in chapter 8, Alexander
the Great, 335 B. C.
when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be
divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, not
according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be
plucked up even for others besides those. " (Verse 4)
||B. C. 323. Alexander died young. The
notable horn was broken: His
kingdom was divided into four parts (four
winds) after the battle o fIpsus 301 B. C. His posterity did not
receive the kingdom, but his
four generals, Ptolemy,
Seleucus Nicator and Cassander.
Not one of these divisions reached to
the glory of Alexander's dominion
the king of the South shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he
shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a
great dominion. " (Verse 5)
||Asia and Greece are not followed but Syria
and Egypt become prominent, because the King of the North from Syria,
and the King of the South, Egypt, were to come in touch with the Jews.
The holy land became involved with both. The King of the South was
Lagus. One of his princes was Seleucus Nicator. He
established a great dominion, which extended to the Indus.
in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's
daughter of the South shall come to the King of the North to make an
agreement; but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall
he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought
her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these
times. " (Verse 6)
|| Here is another gap. This verse
takes us to 250 BC. The two who make
an alliance are the Kings of the
North (Syrian division of the Grecian Empire) and of the South (Egypt).
This alliance was effected by the marriage of the daughter of the King
of the South, the Egyptian Princess Berenice. daughter of Ptolemy II,
to Antiochus Theos, the King of the North. The agreement was that
Antiochus had to divorce his wife and make any child of Berenice his
heir in the kingdom. The
agreement ended in calamity. When Ptolemy died
Antiochus Theos in 247 called back his former wife. Berenice and her
young son were poisoned and the first wife's son, Callinicus, was put
on the throne as Seleucus II.
out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which
shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the King
of the North, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail."
||The one out of her roots (Berenice, who had
been murdered) was her own brother, Ptolemy Euergetes, who avenged her
death. He conquered Syria. He dealt against Seleucus II, King of the
North, and slew the wife of Antiochus Theos, who had
seized the fortress, the port of Antioch.
shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with theirprinces, and
with their precious vessels of silver and gold; and he shall continue
more years than the King of the North. " (Verse 8)
Euergetes did exactly as predicted.
He returned with 4, 000talents of gold and 40, 000 talents of silver
and 2, 500 idols and idolatrous vessels. Many of these Cambyses had
taken to Persia.
the King of the South shall come into his kingdom, and shall return
into his own land. " (Verse 9)
||In 240 B. C. Seleucus Callinicus the King
of the North invaded Egypt. He had to return defeated. His fleet
perished in a storm.
|(Literal translation): "and the same [King of the
North] shall come into the realm of the King of the South, but shall
return into his own land."
||The sons of Seleucus Callinicus were
Seleucus III and Antiochus the Great. Seleueus (Ceraunos) III began war
against Egyptian Provinces inAsia Minor. He was unsuccessful.
son Antioch invaded Egypt and passed through because Ptolemy Philopater
did not oppose him. In 218B. C. Antiochus continued his warfare and
took the fortress Gaza.
his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble amultitude ofgreat
forces; and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through:
then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress. "
||In 217 B. C. Ptolemy aroused himself and
fought Antiochus the Great with an immense army. He defeated Antiochus.
The multitude was given into the hands of Ptolemy Philopater.
the King of the South shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth
and fight with him, even with the King of the North: and he shall set
forth a great multitude but the multitude shall be given into his hand.
" (Verse 11)
||The people of Egypt rose up and the
weakling Ptolemy became courageous. His
victory is again referred to. It
was won at Raphia. He might have pressed his victory. But
he did not
make use of it but gave himself upto a licentious life. Thus "he was
not strengthened by it. "
when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be liftedup, and
he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened
by it. " (Verse 12) (Literal: "And the multitude
shall rise up and his courage increase.")
|| About 14 years later, 203B.
C. , Antiochus assembled agreat army, greater than the army which was
defeated at Raphia, and
turned against Egypt. Ptolemy Philopater had
died and left an infant son Ptolemy Epiphanes.
the King of the North shall return, and shall setforth a multitude
greater than the former and shall certainly come after certain years
with a great army and with much riches. " (Verse 13)
||Antiochus had for his ally Philip, King of
Macedon. Also in Egypt many rebels stood up. And then there were, as we
read in Josephus, wicked Jews, who helped Antiochus. These "robbers of
thy people" established the vision. They
helped along the very things
which had been predicted, as to trials for them.
in those times there shall many stand up againstthe King of the South:
also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the
vision; but they shall fall. " (Verse 14)
||All this was fulfilled in the severe
struggles, which followed.
the King of the North shall come, and cast up amount, and take themost
fenced cities: and the arms of the South shall not withstand, neither
his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand. "
||The invasion of the glorious land by
Antiochus followed. He
subjected the whole land unto himself. He also
was well disposed towards the Jews because they sided with Antiochus
the Great against Ptolemy Epiphanes
he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none
shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which
by his hand shall be consumed." (Verse 16)
||This brings us to the years 198-195 B. C.
Antiochus aimed to get full possession of Egypt. An agreement was made.
In this treaty between Antiochus and Ptolemy Epiphanes, Cleopatra,
daughter of Antiochus was espoused to Ptolemy. Why is Cleopatra called
"daughter of women" (vs 17)? Because she was very young and was under
of her mother and grandmother. The
shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole
and an agreement shall be made with him; thus shall he do: and he shall
give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand
on his side, neither be for him. " (Verse 17)
||A few years later Antiochus conquered isles
on the coast of Asia Minor (vs 18).
this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a
prince [literally: Captain] for his own behalf shall cause the reproach
offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to
turn upon him. " (Verse 18)
||The captain predicted is Scipio Asiaticus.
Antiochus had reproached the Romans by his acts and he was defeated.
This defeat took place at Magnesia 190 B. C.
he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall
stumble and fall, and not be found. " (Verse 19)
returns to his own land. He came
to a miserable end trying to plunder the temple of Belus in Elymais,
shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the
kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger,
nor in battle. " (Verse 20)
||This is Seleucus Philopater B. C. 187-176.
He was known as a raiser of taxes. He had an evil reputation with the
Jews because he was such an exactor among them. His tax collector
Heliodorus poisoned him and so he was slain "neither in anger, nor in
in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give
the honor of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain
the kingdom by flatteries. " (Verse 21)
vile person is none other than
Antiochus Epiphanes. He had no claim on royal dignities,
being only a
younger son of Antiochus the Great. He seized royal honors by trickery
and with flatteries. He
is the little horn of chapter 8.
with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and
shall be broken; yea, also the prince cf the covenant. "
was successful in defeating his enemies.
The prince of the covenant may mean his nephew Ptolemy Philometor. He
also vanquished Philometor's generals.
after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall
come up, and shall become strong with a small people. "
||He reigned friendship to young Ptolemy but
worked deceitfully. To allay suspicion he came against
Egypt with a
small force but took Egypt as far as Memphis.
shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and
he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his father's
father; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches:
yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strongholds, even
for a time. " (Verse 24)
possession of the fertile places in Egypt under the pretense of
peace. He took Pelusium and laid seige to the fortified
he shall stir up his power and his courage against the King of the
South with a great army; and the King of the South shall be stirred
upto battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not
stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. "
||This King of the South is Ptolemy Physcon,
who was made king after Philometor had fallen into the hands of
Antiochus. He had a
great army but did not succeed, because treason had
broken out in his own camp.
they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his
army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain. "
||Additional actions of Antiochus
and warfare, in which he was successful, followed.
both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak
lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be
at the time appointed. " (Verse 27)
||The two kings are Antiochus Epiphanes and
his associate Philometor. They made an alliance against Ptolemy
Euergetes II, also called Physcon. But
they spoke lies against each
other and did not succeed in their plans.
shall he return into his land with great riches;and his heart shall be
against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his
own land. " (Verse 28)
168 B. C. he returned from his
expedition, and had great riches. Then he marched, through
Judea and did
his awful deeds. A report had come to his ears that the Jewish
had reported him dead. In the first and second book of the Maccabees we
read of his atrocities. Then heretired to Antioch.
the time appointed he shall return, and come towardthe South; but it
shall not be as the former, or as the latter. "
||He made still another attempt against the
South. However, he had
not the former success.
the ships of Chittim shall come against him; therefore he shall be
grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant:
so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them
that forsake the holy covenant. " (Verse 30)
ships of Chittim are the Roman fleet.
When within a few miles of Alexandria he heard that ships had arrived.
He went to salute them. They delivered to him the letters of the
senate, in which he was commanded, on pain of the displeasure of the
Roman people, to put an end to the war against his nephews. Antiochus
said, "he would go and consult his friends;" on which Popilius, one of
the legates, took his staff, and instantly drew a circle round
Antiochus on the sand, where he stood; and commanded him not to pass
that circle, till he had given a definite answer. As a grieved and
defeated man he returned and then he fell upon Judea once more to
commit additional wickedness. Apostate Jews sided with
arms shall stand on his part and they shallpollute the sanctuary of
strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shallplace
the abomination that maketh desolate. " (Verse 31)
||This brings us to the climax of the horrors
under Antiochus Epiphanes. The previous record of it is contained in
chapter 8. He sent Apollonius with over 20, 000 men to destroy
Jerusalem. Multitudes were slain, and women and children led away as
captives. He issued a command that all people must conform to the
idolatry of Greece. A wicked Grecian was sent to enforce the word of
Antiochus. All sacrifices ceased and the God-given ceremonials of
Judaism came to an end. The
temple was polluted by the sacrifices of
swine's flesh. The temple was dedicatedto Jupiter
Olympius. Thus the
prediction was fulfilled.
such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by
flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and
do exploits, "And they that understand among the people shall instruct
many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and
by spoil, many days. "Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen
with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries. " (Verses
||These verses describe the condition among
the Jewish people. There were two classes. Those who did wickedly
against the covenant, the apostate, and those who knew God, a faithful
remnant. The apostates
sided with the enemy, and the people who knew God
were strong. This has reference to the noble Maccabees.
There was also
suffering and persecution.