third Book in the Old Testament is called Leviticus. It is called
Leviticus because it treats of the duties of the priests, the sons of
Levi. It is the
Book of Sacrifice.
The Keyword is "Atonement." Lev. 16:34. The Book contains the Very Words of God Himself
dictated to Moses B.C. 1490, from the newly set up Tabernacle, except
the last three chapters given from Mt. Sinai. The time occupied in
giving it was about 30 days. Over 50 times, in its 27 chapters, it declares that its words are the words of God.
scholars of today claim that it was not written by Moses, but is "a
priestly forgery of the times following the Babylonian Captivity, "
nearly a 1000 years after Moses, and that it is a compilation of
certain Jewish priests who wished to magnify their office, and to give
it authority they assigned it to Moses.
this is an absurd claim. How could the priests of the Captivity
persuade the people that a book they had just written had been in
existence for 1000 years?
have the testimony of Christ that the Book of Leviticus was written by
Moses. If Moses did not write it, then Christ was mistaken, or guilty
of misrepresentation. Neither of which we can believe and claim that
Jesus in His teaching was divine and inerrant.
Book of Leviticus is little read in these days, and is considered by
many to be obsolete and only fit for the shelves of a religious
antiquarian, because it treats of a system of worship which they claim
has been done away with
is, we cannot understand the Office and Work of Christ without studying
the Book of Leviticus in the light of its exposition in the Epistle to
the Hebrews. And the Book is of value because it contains the laws of
the Priesthood, that are to be again in force when the Children of
Israel are gathered back into their own land in the Millennial days,
and the Temple of Ezekiel shall be built and the Mosaic order of
Book of Leviticus has a value beside that of throwing light on the High
Priestly Work and Office of Christ. It is not only a "Ritual, " it is
more. It contains a body of
as to Marriage and Divorce, as to Capital and Labor, as to the Social
Evil, as to the Accumulation of Property, as to Capital Punishment, as
to the Observance of the Sabbath, as to the use of the Quarantine.
the statesmen of today desire to make laws in conformity with the will
of God, laws that will conserve the public health, and minister to the
well-being of mankind, let them study the "Civil Laws" of the Book of
Leviticus, and they will find that they throw a flood of light on these
The two main divisions of the Book are
1. The "Way to God" by SACRIFICE.
2. The "Walk With God" by SANCTIFICATION AND SEPARATION
Chapters 17-19. The main teaching of the Book is-
HOW SIN MAY BE PUT AWAY.
The two great commandments of the Book are, be Holy, be Clean. The word "blood" occurs 87 times.
The Offerings were 5 in number-
1. The Burnt Offering.
2. The Meat Offering.
3. The Peace Offering.
4. The Sin Offering.
5. The Trespass Offering.
These Offerings were divided into two classes. The first three were
"Sweet Savor Offerings, "
the last two were
I. The Burnt Offering.
"Burnt" Offering was of three grades according to the ability of the
offerer. If the offerer was well to do he brought an offering from the
herd. If he was in moderate circumstances he brought an offering from
the flock. If he was poor, he brought a fowl, either a turtle dove or a
Only clean animals or
fowls could be offered. That which lived by the death of others, or fed
on carrion, was unfit to offer as a type of the
"Holy Victim" (Christ), who was prefigured in the Offering. Israel was
not to offer as the "food of God" that which they themselves were
forbidden to eat. And even among clean animals, only "domestic" animals
were permitted to be used, for it was fitting that only that should be
offered that had cost something and was more or less endeared to the
offerer. Then domestic animals are "tame, " and easily led, and are a
fit type of Him who was led as a sheep to the slaughter. Isa. 53:7.
only must it be a "domestic" animal either from the herd or the flock,
but it must be a "male, " and a male without "blemish, " that is,
ideally perfect. The Israelite was taught to give the "best" that he
had, not for unselfish reasons, but because only the animal "without
blemish" could typify the Spotless Son of God.
fault that God found with the Children of Israel in Malachi's day was,
that they "brought that which was torn, and the lame, and the sick." Mal. 1:8.
offerer having brought his offering into the Court of the Tabernacle,
the officiating priest approached him and led him and his offering to
the North side of the Altar of Burnt Offering, facing the Door of the
Tabernacle. The Offerer then laid his hand heavily upon the "head" of
the Offering, thus symbolizing the "identity" of the Offerer with his
Offering, and confessing by the act that he deserved the death which
the animal was to suffer.
Offerer then with his own hands slew the Offering, if it was of the
herd or of the flock, but if it was a fowl the priest himself wrung off
When the Offerer slew his
Offering, whether bullock, sheep, or goat, the priest caught the
streaming blood in a basin and sprinkled it round about the Altar of
The animal was then skinned, the skin becoming the property of the priest, probably as compensation for his work.
body of the Offering was then cut in pieces, every joint being
separated. The legs and intestines were washed in water, and the whole
was then rearranged in order upon the Altar and completely consumed
with fire. For this reason it was spoken of as a "Whole Burnt Offering."
The animal was dissected before being burnt to see that it was perfect and without blemish in any of its parts.
the Offering was a fowl all the Offerer did was to bring it to the
priest. The priest took it, wrung off its head, permitted the blood to
squirt out at the side of the Altar, and then cleaved it open between
the wings without separating the two halves, removed the crop and
intestines and cast them on the pile of ashes beside the Altar, and
then burnt the body of the fowl on the Altar.
what is the typical meaning of the "Burnt Offering? " It is clearly not
an offering for "sin, " for that is made in the "Sin Offerings."
The meaning is plain. It typifies the
of the Offerer to the Lord. The purpose is beautifully expressed in Paul's Letter to the Romans-
"I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye
Present Your 'BODIES' a 'LIVING SACRIFICE,
holy (without blemish), acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service." Rom. 12:1.
wants us to present ourselves (as a man volunteers for service), a
Living Sacrifice. He wants us in the full vigor and strength of our
lives, not when we are more dead than alive and unfit for service.
The Burnt Offering was also a type of Christ, of whom the Apostle writing to the Ephesians said-
"Christ also hath loved us, and hath given HIMSELF for us an Offering and a Sacrifice to God for a SWEET SMELLING SAVOR." Eph. 5:2.
This verse exhibits the surrender of Christ to God as a "whole burnt offering." On the "Altar of the Cross" Christ was our BURNT OFFERING.
our accepting Him as our "Burnt Offering" we identify ourselves with
Him, and confess that He died as our substitute. As a substitute He is
the ideal of consecrated service, for His will was always in complete
submission to the Father's. Of Him the Father could say, "This is my
beloved son in whom I am well pleased."
Thus he was an Offering of a "sweet smelling savor, " such as was the Burnt Offering.
while individual Offerers at different times brought their offerings to
the Lord, there was a "daily" Burnt Offering for the whole congregation
of Israel. Ex. 29:42.
consisted of two lambs, one offered at the time of the morning
sacrifice, and the other at the time of the evening sacrifice.
the morning the officiating priest laid off his ordinary garments, and
putting on his "linen garments, " overhauled the fire that had been
burning on the Altar all night, and removed the ashes and laid them by
the side of the Altar. He then put off his "linen garments, " and
replacing them with his ordinary garments he carried forth the ashes
and deposited them in a clean place outside the camp. Returning he put
on his "linen garments" again and offered the lamb of the morning Burnt
Offering. This he repeated in the afternoon, and from day to day, as a
"continual" Burnt Offering, thus typifying the fact that Christ is a
"continual" Burnt Offering for His people, and that the believer should
offer himself, not merely once for all, but continually in consecration
II. The Meat Offering.
The term "Meat" Offering should read "Meal" Offering, as there is no "meat" in it.
When the King James' version of the Bible was printed in A. D. 1611, the word "Meat" meant all kinds of food, and not "flesh" merely.
The "Meal" Offering was of three kinds.
1. Unbaked flour ground fine.
2. Baked loaves or cakes, baked in a pan.
3. Green Ears of -corn parched or roasted.
By "corn" we are to understand "wheat, " as what we know as corn was unknown in Bible Lands in Bible times.
The "Meal" Offering was to be mixed with Oil, seasoned with Salt, sprinkled with Frankincense, and was not to contain any Leaven or Honey.
Offerer was to bring his "Meal" Offering to the officiating priest, who
was to take a "handful" of it and throw it upon the sacrifice upon the
Altar of Burnt Offering as the "Meal" Offering was never offered by
itself but always in connection with a burnt sacrifice.
remainder of the "Meal" Offering was to be eaten by the priests. The
Offerer did not eat of it. In the preparation of the "Meal" Offering we
must note the ingredients "commanded, " and the ingredients
"forbidden." "Oil, " "Salt" and "Frankincense" were to be used and
"Leaven" and "Honey" omitted.
Oil" was largely used for food by the inhabitants of Bible lands, and
is a type in the Bible of the life-giving power of the Holy Spirit.
"Salt" is an antiseptic and a preventive of putrefaction, and was used for its preserving qualities.
was a resinous gum that exuded from a tree, and that when dried and
beaten fine and thrown on a fire, gave out a sweet fragrance. The
Frankincense was not mixed with the"Meal"Offering but sprinkled only
upon the handful that was thrown upon the sacrifice on the Altar to be
burnt, to make the sacrifice of a sweet smelling savor. All the
Frankincense was burnt.
was forbidden because it has fermenting qualities, and "Honey, "
because Honey is spoiled by heat and would make the batch sour.
What is the meaning of the "Meal" Offering?
"Meal" Offering was to be of "Wheat, " the best and most valued of all
grains for food, and it was to be of the "finest of the wheat." Now
wheat does not grow spontaneously like weeds, it has to be planted
after the soil has been laboriously prepared for its reception. Wheat
then represents the outcome of man's labor and toil. It was also a
common article of food of both rich and poor, as was the Olive from
which the oil was extracted, and so obtainable by all.
the "wheat" was not to be presented to the Lord as grain, it was to be
ground and sifted; and where the Offerer had an oven and could prepare
the wheat as cakes for food for the priests, he was to do so, and where
he could not grind or bake it he was to parch it and present it in that
The meaning of the "Meal"
Offering therefore is plain. It was to be offered with the Burnt
Offering; and as we saw that the meaning of the Burnt Offering was the
consecration of the Body of the Offerer, it follows then that
the "Meal" Offering which is the fruit of a man's "labor, " means that
we are not only to consecrate our "bodies" a living sacrifice to God,
but we are to consecrate the Fruit of Our Toil.
This not only means the fruit of our "physical" toil, but all our "spiritual work" in the Lord's Harvest Field.
fact that only a "handful" of the "Meal" Offering was consumed on the
Altar, and the rest was eaten by the priests, is not without its
significance. It means that the bulk of our gifts should go to the
support of the Gospel.
How beautifully the "Meal" Offering represents Christ the great anti-typical "Meal" Offering.
was the "corn of wheat, " bruised in the "Mill of Calvary, " that was
mixed with the "Oil of the Holy Spirit, " seasoned with the "Salt of
Incorruption, " and offered with the "Frankincense of a Holy Life." In
Him was no corrupting Leaven or Sour Honey and He, when offered, became
the Bread of Life.
III.The Peace Offering.
"Peace" Offering was of two kinds, of the herd or of the flock, and was
different from the Burnt Offering in that a male or female could be
offered. The Offering was however to be without blemish.
Offerer brought his Offering, either a bullock, lamb or goat, into the
Court of the Tabernacle to the Altar of Burnt Offering, and there,
before the Lord, he laid his hand upon its head and then killed it, the
officiating priest catching the blood in a basin and sprinkling it
around the Altar.
The animal was
then opened and the fat and kidneys and rump were burned upon the
Altar. The remainder of the animal was to be eaten by the Priests and
the Offerer and his family and friends.
"breast" was "waved" to and fro before the Lord and given to the High
Priest and his sons. The "right shoulder" was heaved up and down before
the Lord and given to the officiating priest; the remainder of the
animal belonged to the Offerer. There were two kinds of "Peace"
Offerings. Lev. 7:11-13. The "Offering of Thanksgiving, " and the Offering in fulfillment of a. "Vow."
flesh of the "Peace Offering of Thanksgiving" was to be eaten the same
day that it was offered, but the flesh of a "Vow" Offering could be
kept over until the next day; but if any of it remained over until the
third day it was considered corrupt and must be burnt.
the Offerer ate of it on the third day his Offering was not accepted,
and he, and any who ate of it, were guilty of committing an abomination
before the Lord and would have to bear their iniquity.
the flesh of the Offering touched an unclean thing it was not to be
eaten, and if any person ate of the Offering while unclean that person
was to be cut off from his people.
Offerer did not have to eat of his Offering alone. He had the privilege
of inviting his sons and daughters, his menservants and maidservants
and the Levites within the gates to feast with him, Deut. 12:5-7, but the feasting must be "before the Lord" in the Court of the Tabernacle, and nowhere else.
The "Peace" Offering was an Offering of Reconciliation.
Not for the purpose of reconciling the Offerer, for it was not made by
God, but by the Offerer, but to show that the Offerer "had been"
reconciled to God.
While Christ is our "PEACE OFFERING"
by whom we have been reconciled to God, yet He is more, He is the One
upon whom we are to "feast, " for He said, "my Flesh is meat indeed,
and my blood is drink indeed." John 6:53-55; Matt. 26:26-28; 1Cor. 11:23-25.
We see then that the "Peace" Offering has an antitypical fulfillment in the "Lord's Supper" where we feast before the Lord by faith, on His broken body and shed blood.
IV.The Sin Offering.
now come to the second class of Offerings. The first class, the "Burnt
" the "Meal" and the "Peace" Offerings, were voluntary and therefore
"sweet savor" Offerings, the second class, the "Sin" and "Trespass"
Offerings are compulsory, and because they were for sins committed
there was no "sweet savors in them.
Once a year on the
"Day of Atonement, "
was made by the High Priest for his own sin, and the sin of the people,
but the"'Sin Offering" we are now about to consider is the Offering for
sin made from time to time during the year.
Offerings were for four classes of persons, namely, the anointed
Priest, the whole Congregation, a Ruler, and an individual member of
In each case the animal offered was to be without blemish and was to be slain at the door of the Tabernacle before the Lord.
anointed Priest who sinned was to bring a "young bullock, " and lay his
hand upon its head and then kill it. When the Congregation had sinned
they brought a "young bullock, " and the Elders of the Congregation
laid their hands upon its head and it was killed. When a Ruler sinned
he brought a "male kid" and laid his hand upon its head and killed it.
When one of the common people sinned he brought a "female kid" and laid
his hand upon its head and killed it.
The difference between the Offerings is seen in the Treatment of the Blood and in the Disposition of the bodies.
blood of the Offering for the Anointed Priest and the Congregation was
taken by the Priest into the Holy Place of the Tabernacle, and he
dipped his, finger in the blood and sprinkled it seven times before the
"Veil" of the Tabernacle, and put some of it on the Horns of the Altar
of Incense, and coming out he poured the remainder of the blood at the
bottom of the Altar of Burnt Offering. But the blood of the Offering of
a Ruler or of one of the common people was not taken into the
Tabernacle, but the officiating priest took of it and put some of it on
the Horns of the Altar of Burnt Offering, and the remainder he poured
out at the bottom of the Altar.
the disposition of the body of the victim the Offering of the Priest
and of the Congregation was skinned, and all the fat, and the fat upon
the kidneys, and the kidneys and the rump were burned on the Altar of
Burnt Offering, and the rest of the bullock, its skin, its head, its
legs and all its flesh and inwards were carried forth outside the camp
unto a clean place, where the ashes were poured out, and burnt.
in the disposition of the body of the Offering of a Ruler, or of the
common people, while the fat was removed and burnt upon the Altar, the
body of the Offering was not carried without the camp and burnt, but
was given to the priests who boiled it and ate it in the Court of the
Tabernacle. The flesh was considered holy, and any garment on which its
blood was sprinkled had to be washed in the Holy Place, and the earthen
vessel in which it was boiled was to be broken, and if it was boiled in
a brazen pot, the pot was to be scoured and washed with water. Lev. 6:24-26.
The two distinguishing features of the "Sin" Offering are the taking of the "blood" Into the Tabernacle, and sprinkling it before the "Veil, " and the carrying of the "body" Outside the Camp.
In these two features we see the meaning of the "Sin" Offering. It speaks of Him who shed His blood on Calvary Outside the City to make Expiation for Sin.
V.The Trespass Offering.
difference between the "Sin" Offering and the "Trespass" Offering seems
to be that the first was to be made for sins against God, the second for sins against Man or Holy Things.
The Offerer was to bring a "Trespass" Offering if he "overheard
swearing and kept, silent, " if he "touched any unclean thing, " if he
"sinned ignorantly in the things of the Lord, " if he "lied to his
neighbor, " if he "found and kept lost property and lied about it, "
There were three kinds of
Offering he could bring according to his ability, a "female lamb or
kid; " "two turtle doves, or young pigeons, " one of which was to be
offered for a Sin Offering, the other for a Burnt Offering; or the
"tenth part of an ephah of fine flour" for a "Sin" Offering, that
should contain no oil or frankincense.
his trespass was against "holy things, " or against the "property of
his neighbor, " he was to make "restitution" and add thereto one-fifth
of the value in silver money. The meaning of the "Trespass" Offering
is, that if I have done anything that has caused injury to any one
else, I should seek to make all the reparation I can, and where
necessary, make restitution.
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